It is one of nine essential amino acids in humans (provided by food), it is important for protein synthesis, hemoglobin formation and many metabolic functions.
It contributes to regulation of blood-sugar levels; growth and repair of muscle and bone tissue; growth of hormone production; wound healing, prevents breakdown of muscle proteins after trauma or severe stress and may be beneficial for individuals with phenylketonuria.
It induces a marked increase in fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 muscle cells (p < 0.001) and decreased FAS expression by 66% (p < 0.001) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
It is a water-soluble vitamin used in the prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. It has been found to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
It inhibits ADP- or epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation and lowers total cholesterol levels and increases HDL-cholesterol levels.
In the form of Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, it was found to protect vascular endothelial cells in culture from injury by activated platelets.
Leucine interacts synergistically with Vitamin B6 to attenuate adiposity.
Pyridoxal Phosphate inhibits adipocyte Ca2+ influx in vitro, resulting in significant decreases in adipocyte fatty acid synthase expression and activity and corresponding reductions in adipocyte triglyceride content, because Ca2+ signaling coordinately stimulates fatty acid synthase activity and inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes.
Leucine and Pyridoxal Phosphate synergistically inhibit adipocyte triglyceride accumulation.
It inhibits formation of fat and disrupts appetite. A digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism.
Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis.
HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses.
The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models.